Rebuilt for Scale

710,000 tx/s with off-the-shelf hardware and no sharding. Scales with Moore's Law.

SHA-256 62f51643c1… 510144806912 hash count hash count hash count 3d039ef62e… 510145855488 cd43d862d88… 510146904064 SHA-256 SHA-256

Proof of History: The Key to Speed

  • Similar to Google’s TrueTime, which relies on synchronized atomic clocks for a trusted source of time and ordering, Solana has created a cryptographically secure, trustless, time source and built a blockchain around it. We call it Proof History.
  • By weaving this standardized timestamp into the blockchain, nodes in the network can verify the time and order of events without witnessing them directly. This drastically reduces messaging overhead and is one example of the world of optimization capabilities that become available through Solana’s Proof of History.
600 500 400 300 200 100 10 20 30 40 50 60 Nodes (1,000’s) Finality (ms) 70 80 90 100

Sub-second finality that actually scales

  • Decentralized blockchain solutions have a scaling problem. In addition to low transaction rates, maintaining quick finality while the network scales is a major problem and many current solutions compromise decentralisation.
  • Through Solana’s “Avalanche” network communication innovation, finality times reduce exponentially as the network grows. This means we can expect ~500ms finality up through 10s of thousands of nodes and beyond.
710,000 txn/sBitcoin 7 txn/sEthereum 14 txn/sVisa 65,000 txn/sGoogle 344,000 ads/sNASDAQ 500,000 txn/s

Finally, scaling without sharding

  • Solana’s approach takes existing blockchain architecture and algorithms and improves on them instead of overlaying additional complexities such as sharding which can compromise security. We believe the right solution is a simple solution.
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 Year (starting 2018) TPS (millions) 7 8 9 10

Scalable smart contracts in any language

  • The development community is our top priority. We intend to be the go-to network for developers who want to build decentralised applications of any kind. With Solana, you can write smart contracts in almost any language. We leverage Berkeley Packet Filter, allowing any language that LLVM supports to be utilized.
  • In addition, the smart contracts engine runs on GPUs. The future is massively parallel, and GPU cores are doubling every 2 years. Today a 5 thousand dollar machine will simultaneously execute 14,000 smart contracts. In two years 28,000. This is why in 10 years solana will be the first blockchain to process a billion transactions per second.

(Some) Use Cases

Decentralized exchanges

Imagine a decentralized trading system that never touches users’ private keys. The entire order book is securely included in the blockchain replicated state while retaining all the performance characteristics of Nasdaq. At 710k tps, Solana can fit Nasdaq's volumes with room to spare. We enable this using via atomic cross chain transactions combined with tradable swaps.


Payments are the holy grail of blockchain, but adoption and scalability are inevitable hurdles. Solana's transactions costs are to be on the order of $0.000001 and lightning fast. Bitcoin's throughput, at 3 payments per day per person, is only enough to service the population of Berkeley, California. We can do better. Solana lays the foundation for the payments platform that blockchain has always promised.

Distributed Web Services and Storage

The future of cloud storage and web services can be decentralized, encrypted, permissionless, and secure. Decentralized file storage systems have the potential to eliminate high markup and human capital costs, and set new standards of unit economics for distributed data storage. Solana provides a scalable path for this future to become a reality.

Distributed Ad Exchanges

If ads are traded on a single, transparent platform, all sorts of ancillary data-driven industries can sprout up: tracking and measurement, rating, and industry reporting. These business models would require nodes to keep much more extensive ledgers than just day-of transactions. At the same time so we need a highly scalable chain to support this future of ad tech (Google serves up 340,000 ads per second). What distributed solutions are there that can support high speed on-chain data collection? You guessed it, this is where Solana’s high throughput blockchain shines.

Our Roadmap

November 2017

Whitepaper published

February 2018

Single node testnet

June 2018

Multinode testnet

September 2018

Public beta & SDK

Q4 2018

Live mainnet

Q1 2019

Token distribution

The Team

Anatoly Yakovenko

Anatoly Yakovenko


Anatoly is the creator of Solana. He led development of operating systems at Qualcomm, distributed systems at Mesosphere, and compression at Dropbox. He holds 2 patents for high performance Operating Systems protocols, was a core kernel developer for BREW which powered every CDMA flip phone (100m+ devices), and led development of tech that made Project Tango (VR/AR) possible on Qualcomm phones.

Greg Fitzgerald

Greg Fitzgerald


Greg is the principal architect of Solana. Formerly of Qualcomm's Office of the Chief Scientist, Greg has explored the full landscape of embedded systems. He created an bidirectional RPC bridge between C and Lua for the BREW operating system, helped launch the ARM backend for the LLVM compiler toolchain, and published a variety of open source projects including a streaming LLVM optimizer in Haskell, license analysis tooling in Python, and a reactive web framework in TypeScript. If you have time to burn, ask him "Why Rust?" We dare you.

Raj Gokal

Raj Gokal


Raj leads operations, product, and finance. He has spent 10 years in product management and finance. He was a venture investor at General Catalyst, started the consumer medical device company Sano which attracted over $20m in investment, and led product management at Omada Health as it grew tenfold.

Eric Williams

Eric Williams, PhD

Data Science, Token Economics

Eric heads data science and token economics. He studied particle physics at Berkeley and received his PhD from Columbia while Higgs hunting at CERN. He completed a postdoc in Medical Physics at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and later led data science at Omada Health.

Stephen Akridge

Stephen Akridge


Stephen spends all his time in the codebase. He has 10 years of critical GPU optimization expertise at Qualcomm and Intel. He led the GPU backend that constantly beat Nvidia.

Alan Yu

Alan Yu

Partnerships, Biz Dev

Alan heads partnerships and community. He spent 10 years at Google in sales and marketing, winning several awards during his tenure. He has been active in the crypto community for years, engaging in defining the future of the space.