How to use the Transfer Fee extension

With any form of transaction, there's often a desire to collect or apply a fee. Similar to a small service charge every time you transfer money at a bank or the way royalties or taxes are collected for particular transfers.

The TransferFee extension allows you to configure a transfer fee directly on the Mint Account, enabling fees to be collected at a protocol level. Every time tokens are transferred, the fee is set aside in the recipient's Token Account. This fee is untouchable by the recipient and can only be accessed by the Withdraw Authority.

The design of pooling transfer fees at the recipient account is meant to maximize parallelization of transactions. Otherwise, one configured fee recipient account would be write-locked between parallel transfers, decreasing throughput of the protocol.

In this guide, we'll walk through an example of creating a mint with the TransferFee extension enabled using Solana Playground. Here is the final script.

Info

The Transfer Fee extension can ONLY take a fee from its same Token Mint. (e.g. if you created TokenA, all transfer fees via the Transfer Fee extension will be in TokenA). If you wish to achieve a similar transfer fee in a token other that itself, use the Transfer Hook extension.

Getting Started #

Start by opening this Solana Playground link with the following starter code.

// Client
console.log("My address:", pg.wallet.publicKey.toString());
const balance = await pg.connection.getBalance(pg.wallet.publicKey);
console.log(`My balance: ${balance / web3.LAMPORTS_PER_SOL} SOL`);

If it is your first time using Solana Playground, you'll first need to create a Playground Wallet and fund the wallet with devnet SOL.

Info

If you do not have a Playground wallet, you may see a type error within the editor on all declarations of pg.wallet.publicKey. This type error will clear after you create a Playground wallet.

To get devnet SOL, run the solana airdrop command in the Playground's terminal, or visit this devnet faucet.

solana airdrop 5

Once you've created and funded the Playground wallet, click the "Run" button to run the starter code.

Add Dependencies #

Let's start by setting up our script. We'll be using the @solana/web3.js and @solana/spl-token libraries.

Replace the starter code with the following:

import {
  Connection,
  Keypair,
  SystemProgram,
  Transaction,
  clusterApiUrl,
  sendAndConfirmTransaction,
} from "@solana/web3.js";
import {
  ExtensionType,
  TOKEN_2022_PROGRAM_ID,
  createAccount,
  createInitializeMintInstruction,
  createInitializeTransferFeeConfigInstruction,
  getMintLen,
  getTransferFeeAmount,
  harvestWithheldTokensToMint,
  mintTo,
  transferCheckedWithFee,
  unpackAccount,
  withdrawWithheldTokensFromAccounts,
  withdrawWithheldTokensFromMint,
} from "@solana/spl-token";
 
// Connection to devnet cluster
const connection = new Connection(clusterApiUrl("devnet"), "confirmed");
 
// Playground wallet
const payer = pg.wallet.keypair;
 
// Transaction signature returned from sent transaction
let transactionSignature: string;

Mint Setup #

First, let's define the properties of the Mint Account we'll be creating in the following step.

// Generate new keypair for Mint Account
const mintKeypair = Keypair.generate();
// Address for Mint Account
const mint = mintKeypair.publicKey;
// Decimals for Mint Account
const decimals = 2;
// Authority that can mint new tokens
const mintAuthority = pg.wallet.publicKey;
// Authority that can modify transfer fees
const transferFeeConfigAuthority = pg.wallet.keypair;
// Authority that can move tokens withheld on mint or token accounts
const withdrawWithheldAuthority = pg.wallet.keypair;
 
// Fee basis points for transfers (100 = 1%)
const feeBasisPoints = 100;
// Maximum fee for transfers in token base units
const maxFee = BigInt(100);

Next, let's determine the size of the new Mint Account and calculate the minimum lamports needed for rent exemption.

// Size of Mint Account with extensions
const mintLen = getMintLen([ExtensionType.TransferFeeConfig]);
// Minimum lamports required for Mint Account
const lamports = await connection.getMinimumBalanceForRentExemption(mintLen);

With Token Extensions, the size of the Mint Account will vary based on the extensions enabled.

Build Instructions #

Next, let's build the set of instructions to:

  • Create a new account
  • Initialize the TransferFee extension
  • Initialize the remaining Mint Account data

First, build the instruction to invoke the System Program to create an account and assign ownership to the Token Extensions Program.

// Instruction to invoke System Program to create new account
const createAccountInstruction = SystemProgram.createAccount({
  fromPubkey: payer.publicKey, // Account that will transfer lamports to created account
  newAccountPubkey: mint, // Address of the account to create
  space: mintLen, // Amount of bytes to allocate to the created account
  lamports, // Amount of lamports transferred to created account
  programId: TOKEN_2022_PROGRAM_ID, // Program assigned as owner of created account
});

Next, build the instruction to initialize the TransferFee extension for the Mint Account.

// Instruction to initialize TransferFeeConfig Extension
const initializeTransferFeeConfig =
  createInitializeTransferFeeConfigInstruction(
    mint, // Mint Account address
    transferFeeConfigAuthority.publicKey, // Authority to update fees
    withdrawWithheldAuthority.publicKey, // Authority to withdraw fees
    feeBasisPoints, // Basis points for transfer fee calculation
    maxFee, // Maximum fee per transfer
    TOKEN_2022_PROGRAM_ID, // Token Extension Program ID
  );

Lastly, build the instruction to initialize the rest of the Mint Account data. This is the same as with the original Token Program.

// Instruction to initialize Mint Account data
const initializeMintInstruction = createInitializeMintInstruction(
  mint, // Mint Account Address
  decimals, // Decimals of Mint
  mintAuthority, // Designated Mint Authority
  null, // Optional Freeze Authority
  TOKEN_2022_PROGRAM_ID, // Token Extension Program ID
);

Send Transaction #

Finally, we add the instructions to a new transaction and send it to the network. This will create a mint account with the TransferFee extension.

// Add instructions to new transaction
const transaction = new Transaction().add(
  createAccountInstruction,
  initializeTransferFeeConfig,
  initializeMintInstruction,
);
 
// Send transaction
transactionSignature = await sendAndConfirmTransaction(
  connection,
  transaction,
  [payer, mintKeypair], // Signers
);
 
console.log(
  "\nCreate Mint Account:",
  `https://solana.fm/tx/${transactionSignature}?cluster=devnet-solana`,
);

Run the script by clicking the Run button. You can then inspect the transactions on the SolanaFM.

Create Token Accounts #

Next, let's set up two Token Accounts to demonstrate the functionality of the TransferFee extension.

First, create a sourceTokenAccount owned by the Playground wallet.

// Create Token Account for Playground wallet
const sourceTokenAccount = await createAccount(
  connection,
  payer, // Payer to create Token Account
  mint, // Mint Account address
  payer.publicKey, // Token Account owner
  undefined, // Optional keypair, default to Associated Token Account
  undefined, // Confirmation options
  TOKEN_2022_PROGRAM_ID, // Token Extension Program ID
);

Next, generate a random keypair and use it as the owner of a destinationTokenAccount.

// Random keypair to use as owner of Token Account
const randomKeypair = new Keypair();
// Create Token Account for random keypair
const destinationTokenAccount = await createAccount(
  connection,
  payer, // Payer to create Token Account
  mint, // Mint Account address
  randomKeypair.publicKey, // Token Account owner
  undefined, // Optional keypair, default to Associated Token Account
  undefined, // Confirmation options
  TOKEN_2022_PROGRAM_ID, // Token Extension Program ID
);

Lastly, mint 2000 tokens to the sourceTokenAccount to fund it.

// Mint tokens to sourceTokenAccount
transactionSignature = await mintTo(
  connection,
  payer, // Transaction fee payer
  mint, // Mint Account address
  sourceTokenAccount, // Mint to
  mintAuthority, // Mint Authority address
  2000_00, // Amount
  undefined, // Additional signers
  undefined, // Confirmation options
  TOKEN_2022_PROGRAM_ID, // Token Extension Program ID
);
 
console.log(
  "\nMint Tokens:",
  `https://solana.fm/tx/${transactionSignature}?cluster=devnet-solana`,
);

Transfer Tokens #

Next, let's try to transfer tokens from the sourceTokenAccount to the destinationTokenAccount. The transfer fee will automatically be deducted from the transfer amount and remain in the destinationTokenAccount account.

To transfer tokens, we have to use the either the transferChecked or transferCheckedWithFee instructions.

In this example, we'll use transferCheckedWithFee. The transfer only succeeds if the correct transfer fee amount is passed into the instruction.

// Transfer amount
const transferAmount = BigInt(1000_00);
// Calculate transfer fee
const fee = (transferAmount * BigInt(feeBasisPoints)) / BigInt(10_000);
// Determine fee charged
const feeCharged = fee {'>'} maxFee ? maxFee : fee;
 
// Transfer tokens with fee
transactionSignature = await transferCheckedWithFee(
  connection,
  payer, // Transaction fee payer
  sourceTokenAccount, // Source Token Account
  mint, // Mint Account address
  destinationTokenAccount, // Destination Token Account
  payer.publicKey, // Owner of Source Account
  transferAmount, // Amount to transfer
  decimals, // Mint Account decimals
  feeCharged, // Transfer fee
  undefined, // Additional signers
  undefined, // Confirmation options
  TOKEN_2022_PROGRAM_ID, // Token Extension Program ID
);
 
console.log(
  "\nTransfer Tokens:",
  `https://solana.fm/tx/${transactionSignature}?cluster=devnet-solana`,
);

Withdraw Fee from Token Accounts #

When tokens are transferred, transfer fees automatically accumulate in the recipient Token Accounts. The Withdraw Authority can freely withdraw these withheld tokens from each Token Account of the Mint.

To find the Token Accounts that have accumulated fees, we need to fetch all Token Accounts for the mint and then filter for ones which have withheld tokens.

First, we fetch all Token Accounts for the Mint Account.

// Retrieve all Token Accounts for the Mint Account
const allAccounts = await connection.getProgramAccounts(TOKEN_2022_PROGRAM_ID, {
  commitment: "confirmed",
  filters: [
    {
      memcmp: {
        offset: 0,
        bytes: mint.toString(), // Mint Account address
      },
    },
  ],
});

Next, we filter for Token Accounts that hold transfer fees.

// List of Token Accounts to withdraw fees from
const accountsToWithdrawFrom = [];
 
for (const accountInfo of allAccounts) {
  const account = unpackAccount(
    accountInfo.pubkey, // Token Account address
    accountInfo.account, // Token Account data
    TOKEN_2022_PROGRAM_ID, // Token Extension Program ID
  );
 
  // Extract transfer fee data from each account
  const transferFeeAmount = getTransferFeeAmount(account);
 
  // Check if fees are available to be withdrawn
  if (transferFeeAmount !== null && transferFeeAmount.withheldAmount {'>'} 0) {
    accountsToWithdrawFrom.push(accountInfo.pubkey); // Add account to withdrawal list
  }
}

Finally, we use the withdrawWithheldAuthority instruction to withdraw the fees from the Token Accounts to a specified destination Token Account.

// Withdraw withheld tokens from Token Accounts
transactionSignature = await withdrawWithheldTokensFromAccounts(
  connection,
  payer, // Transaction fee payer
  mint, // Mint Account address
  destinationTokenAccount, // Destination account for fee withdrawal
  withdrawWithheldAuthority, // Authority for fee withdrawal
  undefined, // Additional signers
  accountsToWithdrawFrom, // Token Accounts to withdrawal from
  undefined, // Confirmation options
  TOKEN_2022_PROGRAM_ID, // Token Extension Program ID
);
 
console.log(
  "\nWithdraw Fee From Token Accounts:",
  `https://solana.fm/tx/${transactionSignature}?cluster=devnet-solana`,
);

Run the script by clicking the Run button. You can then inspect the transaction on the SolanaFM.

Harvest Fee to Mint Account #

Token Accounts holding any tokens, including withheld ones, cannot be closed. However, a user may want to close a Token Account with withheld transfer fees.

Users can permissionlessly clear out Token Accounts of withheld tokens using the harvestWithheldTokensToMint instruction. This transfers the fees accumulated on the Token Account directly to the Mint Account.

Let's first send another transfer so the destinationTokenAccount has withheld transfer fees.

// Transfer tokens with fee
transactionSignature = await transferCheckedWithFee(
  connection,
  payer, // Transaction fee payer
  sourceTokenAccount, // Source Token Account
  mint, // Mint Account address
  destinationTokenAccount, // Destination Token Account
  payer.publicKey, // Owner of Source Account
  transferAmount, // Amount to transfer
  decimals, // Mint Account decimals
  feeCharged, // Transfer fee
  undefined, // Additional signers
  undefined, // Confirmation options
  TOKEN_2022_PROGRAM_ID, // Token Extension Program ID
);
 
console.log(
  "\nTransfer Tokens:",
  `https://solana.fm/tx/${transactionSignature}?cluster=devnet-solana`,
);

Next, we'll "harvest" the fees from the destinationTokenAccount. Note that this can be done by anyone and not just the owner of the Token Account.

// Harvest withheld fees from Token Accounts to Mint Account
transactionSignature = await harvestWithheldTokensToMint(
  connection,
  payer, // Transaction fee payer
  mint, // Mint Account address
  [destinationTokenAccount], // Source Token Accounts for fee harvesting
  undefined, // Confirmation options
  TOKEN_2022_PROGRAM_ID, // Token Extension Program ID
);
 
console.log(
  "\nHarvest Fee To Mint Account:",
  `https://solana.fm/tx/${transactionSignature}?cluster=devnet-solana`,
);

Withdraw Fee from Mint Account #

Tokens "harvested" to the Mint Account can then be withdrawn at any time by the Withdraw Authority to a specified Token Account.

// Withdraw fees from Mint Account
transactionSignature = await withdrawWithheldTokensFromMint(
  connection,
  payer, // Transaction fee payer
  mint, // Mint Account address
  destinationTokenAccount, // Destination account for fee withdrawal
  withdrawWithheldAuthority, // Withdraw Withheld Authority
  undefined, // Additional signers
  undefined, // Confirmation options
  TOKEN_2022_PROGRAM_ID, // Token Extension Program ID
);
 
console.log(
  "\nWithdraw Fee from Mint Account:",
  `https://solana.fm/tx/${transactionSignature}?cluster=devnet-solana`,
);

Run the script by clicking the Run button. You can then inspect the transaction on the SolanaFM.

Conclusion #

The TransferFee extension enables token creators to enforce fees on each transfer without requiring extra instructions or specialized programs. This approach ensures that fees are collected in the same currency as the transferred tokens, simplifying the transaction process.